Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
360° planning and control of brand communications A holistic fully integrated approach to campaign planning management at every level scheduled throughout the whole campaign involving all media, messages and timings See the extended case study on BMW’s Mini in Chapter 10
ABC See Audit Bureau of Circulation
Absolute position Targeted to ‘market space’ or category. A brand must ensure that it shares enough of the characteristics and associations with other brands in the targeted category Lookers – First for Vauxhall in the North West’ positions this car dealership against rival suppliers
Häagen-Dazs owns an occasion: ‘A DVD at home night’. Other examples are Gillette’s ‘The Best a Man Can Get’, Kit Kat’s ‘Have a Kit Kat, Have a Break’ and probably Carlsberg’s ‘Probably the Best Lager in the World’ Gillette ‘The Best a Man Can Get’
Carlsberg ‘Probably the Best Lager in the World’
Kit-Kat ‘Have a break’
Across-category consideration When a consumer considers brands from different product categories before a purchase
Action-based objectives or action goals Communication objectives aiming at affecting behaviour. Mainly sales-oriented, the generation of information and the building of customer relationships
Actual state How the consumer is feeling at the moment prior to purchase Needing to remove hunger, thirst, insecure or low self-esteem
Ad busting Consumers who blatantly destroy or alter an advertising billboard ‘to curtail rampant consumerism’ can deliberately sabotage campaigns. PR communications NOT initiated by the organisation, but perceived as having been sent by the organisation Illegal stickers of Adobe Photoshop's interface panels were pasted onto Britney Spears, Leona Lewis and Christina Aguilera posters in Berlin to highlight the false airbrushing of models in advertising
Addressability Ability to more accurately target audiences Digital TV, TiVo, PVRs and video on demand
Advertainment or advermovies Online conversation about product enhancement and user experience  where communications messages are ‘captured’ in the content Adidas’ ‘Dream Big’ 2008 campaign which used TV advertising to open up the latest chapter in its story: connecting with grassroots football. TV ads (‘Now showing at’) pulled viewers onto the adidas.comwebsite
‘Adidas Dream Big’
Advertising Non-personal, one-way mass messages paid for by an identified sponsor and disseminated to a broad audience in order to influence or change their behaviour Corporate image or brand image campaigns
Advertising communication The number of individuals receiving some kind of communication from the advertising
Advertising exposure The number of individuals exposed to the advertising
Advertising perception The number of individuals noticing the advertising
Advertising spend Usually referred to as adspend equating to the total spent on media, creativity, design and evaluation of campaign Red Bull’s total advertising spend for 2007 in the UK was £21 million covering....’
Advertorials Advertisements which are paid for by a company, but have the appearance of being an editorial (as it is written and presented in the idiom of the journal’s style rather than being transparently an advertisement) Cosmetics companies Estée Lauder and Clinique place advertising in the style of an editorial or article in Hello! Magazine
Affiliate marketing Website that sells other websites’ products (otherwise known as affiliates) Amazon created the first large-scale affiliate programme
Aggregator retail brands Primarily providers of manufacturer choice, environment and price to mass consumers Wal-Mart in the USA, ASDA in the UK and Carrefour in France
‘All that you can afford’ method of budget setting Expediency may dictate priorities such as management of cash flow and even survival might condition how much the organisation can afford
Alliteration Words that start with the same letter used for impact and memorability
Ambassador programme The recruitment of key influential journalists and opinion formers to generate WOM publicity for brand The furniture retailer DFS succeeded in ‘seeding’ positive awareness amongst an audience of over 17 million in terms of OTS/OTH
Ambiguous support Partial agreement with claim. The company does something to remedy the situation but does not take full blame In Perrier’s crisis with contaminated water the company recalled its products and replaced them
Ambush marketing Unknowing associations with a brand or event (typically, false sponsorship) designed to derive the same values as sponsorship out of events, without being actual sponsors. Reactive PR communications NOT initiated by the organisation, AND NOT perceived as having been sent by the organisation Heineken handed out hats at the Euro 2008 football tournament where rivals Carlsberg were an official sponsor paying $21 million for the privilege
Antanaclasis Repeating a word in two different senses ‘Today’s Slims at a very slim price’ (Misty Ultra Light cigarettes)
‘Nobody knows the athlete’s foot like the Athletes Foot’ (The Athletes Foot shoe store)
Antimetable Repetition for effect The Toyota ad ‘Our vehicles don’t just take people to work, they put people to work!’
AOM Academy of Marketing
Approach–approach Motivational conflict requiring consumers to choose between desirable alternatives Buying a new car or funding an expensive holiday
Approach–avoidance Motivational conflict where consumption has to be a balance between desirable and undesirable consequences ‘Naughty but nice’ advertising appeals try to encourage the pleasure of eating against the problem of gaining weight
Arbitrary method of budget setting No predetermined set amount for expected marketing communications expenditures. Ad hoc decisions are made on the basis of market conditions, competitive activities and changing brand requirements
ARF The Advertising Research Foundation
Argument strength Degree of relationship to product/mission benefit
Artwork Traditionally artwork takes the form of a pasted-down bromide onto a base board. It is the final preparation before conversion into the final printed material. Digital processes can now be used to replace traditional finished artwork
Aspirational self-image Self-image as one would like to be
Assonance Words which sound the same or have the same vowel sounds used for impact and memorability ‘Choose Wisely, Choose Sony’ (an example of anaphora as the word ‘choose’ is repeated at the start of each sentence; ‘Beanz Meanz Heinz’, and ‘You’ll Never Put A Better Bit’ o’ Butter on your Knife’
Asymmetric competition Imbalance of marketing communications expenditure by different competing organisations
Atmospherics Tools to create store design
Attitude Comprising three components: cognitive-affective-conative (thinking-feeling-doing), an attitude is considered to be relatively enduring and results in a consistent response to given internal or external stimuli. Katz’ four functions for attitudes: utilitarian function, value expressive function, knowledge function, ego-defence function
Attitude specificity The level of concreteness in an attitude
Attraction effect A new, and inferior, brand enhances the sales of current, similar brands and reduces the sales of current, dissimilar brands
ATR model Three-stage process of behaviour involving the movement from awareness to trial to repeat behaviour. See also Hierarchy of effects
Attribute(s) Concrete aspects, feature(s), key ingredients or unique competitive elements of the brand relevant to the subset of needs and wants of a selected target audience in a category Like store location, an ABS braking system, or 100% pure orange juice Hovis – ‘Seed Sensations’ features the use of seeds in its bread
Vauxhall Astra Elite – includes MP3 player and auxiliary iPod connector
Attribution Assigning responsibility to one party
Audience actively engaged Time spent interacting with medium. For example, the average online game player spends 8 hours with a game
Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) Organisation that certifies audited net sales of publications. Basically, the circulation figure is calculated by deducting returned copies from the number originally distributed. Audited circulation can be considered a fair reflection of the number of copies actually being read ABC figures, which are reported in BRAD, indicate the actual number of copies of a publication in circulation
Automated call distributor Electronic system by which telephone calls can be routed to appropriate departments or contacts without the need for direct human contact
Avatar Creation of ‘cyber-identity’ (alter-ego identity) In an attempt to communicate with younger voters, the UK Labour Party has a virtual version of Peter Mandelson, the Business Secretary, as an avatar in the controversial online role-playing game Second Life