Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
B2B Business to business (organisational buying behaviour)
B2B push strategies Promotions aimed at encouraging sales between organisations for the purpose of providing stock and service to fulfil demand stimulated by the consumer as the end user
B2B push/pull strategies Promotions aimed at creating demand sales between organisations  as well as providing stock and service to fulfil demand stimulated by the consumer as the end user
B2B2C communication flow Cascading communication flow from company to consumer through intermediaries
B2C Business to consumer (individual buying behaviour)
B2C pull strategies Promotions aimed at creating consumer demand
B2C push/pull strategies The presence and influence of  opinion leaders in disseminating information requires communication to be aimed at end recipient and channelled through intermediary sources Some e-business models work on the dialogue approach for communications and sales
Balance theory Relationships between three attitudes
Banded pack Pack of products strapped or banded together
Behavioural domains Cognitive, affective and conative behavioural responses to communications and purchase’
Behavioural paradigm of buyer behaviour Proponents of this paradigm generally believe that to find out what is going on in the mind of an individual is not achievable. The behaviourist approach suggests that buyer behaviour is a function of past learned experiences (behaviour) and stimuli that are predominantly found in the environment. Behavioural theorists believe that marketing communications activity should be focused on creating the correct environmental cues for the individual and on monitoring the responses to these cues as a guide to future activity
Behavioural segmentation Segmentation based on behavioural characteristics towards particular goods or service categories
Behaviourist orientation Analysis of consumer behaviour based on action orientation
Belief crystallisation Thinking and elaborating on a brand’s beliefs
Below-the-line communications Marketing communications that make use of the non-commission-paying media in all their forms, i.e. all forms of promotions other than advertising. Sometimes, incorrectly, it is referred to as below-the-line advertising. Although it remains a popular term, its usefulness is limited as it encompasses such a broad range of promotional activity
Benefits Actual or perceived asset offering utility to user of brand Radio Two: online, on digital and on 88 to 91 FM’
Blitz schedule Reaching audience with high frequency
Body copy Body copy is the term given for the main text or words. Usually, body copy is brief but some creative treatments require a lot of information to be disseminated. See also Headlines
BOGOF Buy one get one free consumer promotion Colchester-based UK online car broker offered a BOGOF promotion with its Dodge Avenger saloons
Bonus packs Providing packaged ‘bundles’ of stock either of quantities of the same product or using ancillary products may be advantageous to stock and strategically useful for the manufacturer to achieve penetration of the distributor offer Special consumer promotion kits (e.g. PC World offering manufacturers’ computers with special software)
Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Strategy matrix relating market share to category growth
Brain scan Measurement of a person’s brain activity
Brand/customer relationships Formal and informal links between company and customer The COOP Bank’s Ethical Policy has led to more than £1 billion in unethical business being declined
Brand added value Brands enable customers to derive extra benefits which may be functional, social or even psychological The Body Shop offers a clear conscience as well as cosmetics to its customers
Brand alliance Two or more brands that create joint short-term or long-term products In an alliance with the UK Government’s Department of Health, Kellogg launched one of its biggest on-pack promotions to date, backing both Change4Life and sub-brand Breakfast4Life
Brand anatomy The physical and emotional characteristics of a brand
Brand Asset Valuator A professional brand equity model by Young & Rubicam
Brand assimilation New brand or new information absorbed into the category by using existing customer knowledge The acceptance of Apple iPods by consumers was largely due to the path paved by Sony Walkman’s not transistor radios or ‘ghetto blasters’
Brand associations Awareness, image and beliefs of what the brand means Panasonic Lumix cameras are linked with fun, usability and creativity
Brand associations – explicit Unequivocal, overt, intended linkages with places, personalities or even emotions FFI Fair Instant: ‘Coffee with a bigger heart’ directly links to the ethics of Fair Trade and the Save the Children fund
Brand associations – implicit Implied, embedded or suggested linkages with places, personalities or even emotions Tropicana Orange Juice: use of iconic New York imagery to imply brand sophistication and project more than product quality
Brand awareness Buyer’s ability to identify, recognise or recall the brand within the category in sufficient detail to make a purchase
Brand book Employee manual for brand communications
Brand conversations Solicited and unsolicited communications which affect target audience and stakeholder perceptions
Brand credibility of employees Measurements that indicate whether employees believe that a company is capable of delivering on its promises to customers and employees
Brand delivery Measurements of whether employees believe that the company fulfilsits promise to customer and employees
Brand differences How distinctive the brand is from the competition Sandwich retailer Pret A Manger uses highly distinctive packaging to differentiate its quality brand against the competition
Brand differentiation The brand acts as a way of positioning away from the competition
Brand dominance Market strength as primary choice in purchase decisions. Financial value Sainsbury’s strategy is to be seen as first choice for food in the UK supermarket sector
Brand encounter: explicitly planned Deliberately overtly encoded mix elements Singapore Airlines offers a luxury ‘cabin ambience’ which includes: world-class dining from around the world; in-flight amenities, reading and rest facilities; and KrisWorld, its award-winning in-flight entertainment system, now offers passengers more than 500 entertainment options
Brand encounters and brand messages All solicited and unsolicited communications situations where target audience and stakeholder are exposed to the brand. These exposure experiences are ‘moments of truth’. Brand encounters are frequently the embodiment of the organisation from the customer’s perspective
Brand equity The amalgam of brand associations (awareness, image and beliefs of what the brand means), brand dominance (market strength and financial value) and brand prospects (extension possibilities for company and customer). The value of the brand in the minds of customers. Total positive and negative connotations communicated by and about the brand Tesco’s all-encompassing ‘Every Little Helps’ feeds into a bank of ‘goodwill’ positive associations and brand potential which underpins the brand’s story arc and maintenance
Brand essence Comprises the aggregate of the four dimensions: functions, personality or image, source and differences. Alternative terms are: brand core, brand DNA, brand soul and brand genetic code
Brand ethos The of the brand’s values Volvo used to have ‘safety’ as its core ethos until it became restrictive. Lately a move to a more social image (‘Life Is Better Lived Together’) has broadened the brand’s appeal
Brand expansion The ability to use the brand name for new products, either alone or with other brands Yamaha (originally a Japanese manufacturer of motorbikes) into branded hi-fi equipment, pianos and sports equipment
Brand extension and brand stretching The use of the brand for new products (alone)
Brand function What the brand is and what it is supposed to do Ronseal: ‘It does what it says on the tin’
Brand identity How the organisation wants the brand to be perceived
Brand image What user imagery the brand has in terms of people’s cognitive and affective disposition to the brand
Brand inferences Conclusions about a brand’s anatomy beyond what is communicated
Brand influence of employees How well the specific ways that employees have an impact on the customer experience are defined, communicated and upheld Ford Motor Company appealed to its employees, retirees and dealers (750,000 people) to spread the word amongst friends and family about the quality and features of Ford vehicles in their ‘Drive one’ campaign that dared consumers to drive Ford vehicles
Brand ladder A consumer’s mental arrangement of possible brands as part of consideration set A list of favourite restaurants, shops, clothes labels which are mentally ranked by individual
Brand map A graphical representation of competing brands in relation to one another based on people's perceptions. Also called position maps and perceptual maps
Brand name suggestiveness The ability of a brand name to describe an attribute or a benefit Utterly Butterly
Brand outcomes Consequences of brand equity (e.g. monetary consequences)
Brand parity Situation where brands are seen as being equivalent
Brand performance The brand’s ability to create high market share and/or high relative price
Brand personality Human-like characteristics of the brand Ben & Jerry’s ‘Baked Alaska: If It’s Melted It’s Ruined’ campaign feeds into the long-term ethos of societal concern and citizen brands
The Body Shop – caring, ethical organisation
Virgin – ‘everyman’ brand taking on the traditional establishment brands
Brand portfolios Are used by companies who sell products under many different brand names
Brand preference (formerly attitude) Buyer’s evaluation of the brand with respect to its perceived ability to meet a currently relevant motivation (the evaluation is based on brand benefit beliefs and the motivation-related emotional weights of the benefits and of possible freestanding emotions)
Brand preference, advocacy and satisfaction Measurements that show the extent to which employees prefer to work at the company rather than its competitors and the degree to which they are comfortable referring friends and family to their employer
Brand promiscuity Consumers who migrate to many brands and do not manifest loyalty to any one brand
Brand prospects Extension possibilities for company and customer Bosch’s ‘Invented for Life’ campaign reinforces the built to last functionality whilst engaging users in its developing eco-friendly brand story
Brand purchase intention Buyer’s self-instruction to purchase the brand or to take purchase-related action
Brand recall The brand (identity) is prompted AFTER a category need arises
Brand recognition The consumer associates the brand (identity) with the category
Brand source What the company stands for and what its aims are The Cirque du Soleil brand stands for an overall amazing theatrical experience
Brand story arc potential Ongoing brand narrative. Longevity of brand and ability to engage audience in ongoing dialogue
Brand strategy Typically four main branding strategies are identified: corporate umbrella branding, family umbrella branding, range branding and individual branding
Brand switching Consumers purchase different brands in the category
Brand touch-points All the replications of brand image or encounters experienced by prospective and actual target audiences
Brand trust of employees A gauge of trust and commitment level which employees have in the company leadership’s ability to do the right thing relative to the values of the brand See Brand influence of employees
Brand understanding of employees How well key valued and differentiated elements of the brand are articulated
Branded entertainment Content-captured commercials or commercial-captured content such as product placement and stealth marketing
Branded own-label retail brands Primarily providers of a private label proposition, environment and price to mass consumers Spain’s Zara and Mango, Germany’s Aldi and France’s Auchan
Brandsactional advertising Digital migration of platforms Social media and online video are blurring the lines between advertising and marketing
Brand-specific associations Using the brand’s unique association when extending the brand. Ongoing brand loyalty which creates brand advocates and maximises ‘lifetime customer value’ Bosch’s ‘Invented for Life’ campaign reinforces the built to last functionality whilst engaging users in its developing eco-friendly brand story
The Harley Owner’s Group (HOGS) has a lifestyle affinity with the brand
BRCs Business reply cards
Breadth expansion Brand awareness is enhanced in new situations Pantene combs, brushes and hair accessories, in-store communications, merchandising, branded environments, sampling systems, brochures, as well as a fully interactive website
Bromide Photographic production of original artwork used as a basis in the subsequent print production process
Bubblegram prompts Prompts or cues provided in the form of a picture or map as guidelines to telesales operators. So called because the prompts are shown as interlinking 'bubbles' of ideas, statements or questions
Business understanding How well employees understand the philosophical and historical underpinnings of the organisation in terms of the markets that are competed in, the needs of the categories served, and who its customers are and what they require
Buying centre Different buyer roles, especially important in B2B buyer behaviour