Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
C2C Consumer to consumer. Communications which go directly from individual to individual without company mediation. Peer-to-peer communications
CAA See Cinema Advertising Association
Call centre Central resource that groups personnel together for telemarketing, both outbound (sales calls to customers and potential customers, or relationship marketing activities) and inbound (customers, responding to direct response advertising, customers requiring service)
Calls to action Many promotions require that the target is encouraged to take some form of action: ring a free phone number, fill in a coupon, request more information, collect tokens, try a sample, buy a product, request a sales visit, etc. These are calls to action that should be facilitated within the promotion where they are applicable
Capacity model of attention Model developed by Kahneman that recognises only limited attention can be given to all the stimuli available in the environment. People have only limited information processing resources. For this reason, emphasis tends to be placed on the need for marketing communications to attract attention
CAPI Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing
Captions Captions are short descriptions of text or visuals and help to break up the body copy in layout terms
Captive audience Interruption communication model where audience is static and viewing occurs when scheduled and therefore can be controlled
Carelines Mechanisms, usually telephone but could be other facilities such as fax and email, to help facilitate easy communications between an organisation and its customers
Category match Alternatives are from the same category
Category mismatch Alternatives are from unrelated categories
Category need Product or service requirement or need fulfilment. Motivations (interests, concerns and needs) of target audience which are demand-creating conditions The array of appeals for new motor cars is dependent upon demand for symbolic, functional, social or pragmatic needs
Category planning Means that the consumer has decided on a product category but will decide on the brand in the store Supermarkets will put crisps, sandwiches, snacks, biscuits, microwave meals etc as a ‘meal replacement’ category
Category space Market/product location either in the competitive marketplace or the minds of the audience
CATI Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing
Causal or cause-related marketing Associating an organisation with 'worthy' causes such as charities to demonstrate corporate and social responsibility. Tesco’s ‘Computers for Schools’ is a good example of this
Cause-related promotions (free item) Promotions aimed at raising awareness or funding for community-based activities and demonstrating corporate and social responsibility
Celebrity endorsement The use of a well known person to promote a company or product brand. See also Ohanian's celebrity endorser credibility scale
Centrifugal forces Country-level forces external to an organisation 'pushing' it to adapt marketing programmes
Centripetal forces Internal organisational forces (e.g. policy, structure, culture, economies of scale) 'pulling' an organisation to standardise marketing programmes
CEM Customer experience management
Choice rules How consumers make choices
CIM Chartered Institute of Marketing
Cinema Advertising Association (CAA) Responsible for much of the data on cinema audiences. Information on cinema going is also collected as part of the NRS data
CIPR Chartered Institute of Public Relations
Circulation The number of copies of a publication circulated in the market. Audited circulation figures are preferable as they are certified as accurate, and represent the number of copies distributed less the number of copies returned to the publisher
Claims Physical or psychological brand assertion about the effects of brand use This can be done either physically (e.g. our product gives you fresh breath when you brush with our toothpaste) or psychologically (e.g. show others how you take care of yourself)
Clarity How clear the brand signal is to consumers
Classical conditioning Associating two elements with each other Intel Pentium Processor’s ‘sound logo’ and McDonald’s use of Disney are examples of associative learning by classical conditioning
Classified advertising Advertisements that appear in the classified sections of the mass media
Click When a visitor to a website interacts with an ad so that the visitor is directed toward the advertiser's page or website
Click stream A recorded path of the pages a site visitor uses when clicking on various websites in search of information
Click-through rates (CTR) Number of online viewers who voluntarily view flash ads or ‘roadblock’ online advertising
Client brief Usually a written document, but could be presented verbally, outlining relevant background information and the principal marketing communications task to be undertaken
Clutter Total amount (noise) of marketing communications the audience is exposed to
CMYK Cyan, magenta, yellow and black (key) are the primary inks used in printing. As these inks are used in wet proofing, it ensures a true representation of the colour to be delivered
Co-branding One or more brands doing joint marketing communications The ‘Intel Inside’ promotion of Intel Pentium Processor microchips in a range of manufacturers’ PCs
Cognitive consistency The preference to fit things to existing thoughts and opinions
Cognitive dissonance Term coined by Leon Festinger to describe a psychological state in which there is some incongruity (dissonance) or unstable state of mind caused by the holding of two contradictory attitudes or beliefs. Post-shopping regret or uncertainty caused by guilt or poor decision-making or brand promise not being achieved by brand in use. The resulting inconsistency encourages the individual to modify his thoughts to be more compatible or harmonious
Cognitive learning Learning by thinking through a problem or task
Cognitive orientation Communication which works on appeals to processing of knowledge, facts etc. rather than emotional appeal
Cognitive paradigm of buyer behaviour Focuses on the individual's thought processes when making purchasing decisions. The cognitive paradigm sees consumer choice as a problem-solving and decision-making sequence of activities, the outcome of which is determined principally by the buyer's intellectual functioning, and rational, goal-directed processing of information
Commission-earning system System of payment in which advertising agencies are paid commission for booking media on behalf of clients
Commission rebating Arrangement between a client and its advertising agency (or media independent) whereby some of the media commission the agency receives is passed on to the client by way of a discount on media costs
Commonality The degree to which communication components reinforce each other
Communal marketing Customers are the sales force by acting as market mavens. CRM in action
Communicability Can the benefits and brand values be communicated to an audience in a coherent and effective manner?
Communication conduit Medium or channel such as TV or opinion leader
Communication durability Lifespan of the communication
Communication effects Desired target market behavioural response to marketing communications
Communication objective chains Implying a sequential process or hierarchy of effects as aims for marketing communications
Communications loop The two-way nature of communications from sender to receiver and back again
Comparative advertising Ads that compare the brand against a familiar (most often) competitor in the category American brand Dunkin’ Donuts tells consumers that more ‘hard-working’ people prefer their coffee than the high-priced Starbucks, ‘elitist’ coffee
Compatibility Does it fit in with the way a consumer currently is satisfied by a category need? Fitted home office furniture bombed in the 1970s and has achieved rapid growth due to changing social trends and home working
Competing parity brands Brands must strive to be similar to competing brands to be properly positioned in a category ASDA ad campaign stating ‘2,400 items reduce by ASDA; only 1,200 by
Competing peripheral brands Achieves typicality whilst not directly competing Pot Noodle is a ‘naughty but nice’ alternative meal replacement
Competitive loyals People who buy a competitor’s product most or all of the time
Competitive parity method of budget setting Matching spend with competitors to achieve relative positioning, share of voice or even psychological equity can often be an appropriate method of budget setting, especially for challenger brands who seek category comparison or competitive parity
Competitive positioning Achieving recognition by the consumer as offering a similar or better value proposition than the competition
Competitor intensity The number of competitors in the category and how they differ from each other
Complementarity Refers to how the components can be best combined for best overall effect If, for example, trial is key to early product adoption, sampling, package offers and merchandising may be best
Complexity Does the potential user understand the brand and can they use it?
Compromise effect Tendency to avoid extreme alternatives, e.g. the highest price or the lowest quality
Concept boards Collection of visual materials (e.g. drawings, collage, montage) to replace or complement a written description that reflects the essence of a product or its customers/consumers. See also mood boards.
Conditional value Certain situational factors such as celebration of events (birthdays, marriage, gift giving) carry another level of significance above the functional, social and emotional levels
Congruity Sharing the same meaning. See also consistency
Connotative meaning A meaning that is not shared
Consensus Several sources communicate same message/agree
Consideration set Brands which are possible alternatives to fulfil problem or need within a category Dell, Toshiba, Apple as choices for a laptop purchase
Consistency The brand is communicated in the same way over time and the brand associations share the same core meaning
Conspicuous consumption Desire to show purchase to others as a sign of wealth, status or knowledge
Consumer-based brand equity The value of the brand for consumers
Consumer durable Long-lasting consumer products
Consumer engagement User ‘buy-in’ to the company’s brand story as being sympathetic with the individual’s own values, desires and situation The ongoing brand loyalty of Harry Potter fans creates brand advocates and maximises lifetime customer value
Consumer ethnocentrism Consumer beliefs about the appropriateness and morality of buying foreign products
Consumer-generated content Interactivity-induced consumer involvement and open-source marketing such as viral marketing. ‘Word of mouse’ gives undisputed credible and qualified referrals and exhibits a community-driven expression of interest. User-generated and co-authored
Consumption goal End state that consumers want to achieve WeightWatchers appeals to those consumers who want to lose weight
Contract proof Proof that print buyer and printer agree shows an acceptable quality of print
Continuity Consistent duration of communication
Continuum of integrated marketing communications Concept that emphasises that integration of marketing communications occurs to different degrees, and that greater benefits accrue from greater integration. The continuum also emphasises that separation between marketing communications elements can give rise to negative consequences
Contribution The component’s standalone ability to communicate without any assistance from other communication mix elements
Conventional media Traditional media such as above-the-line advertising
Conversion (as in ‘conversion ratios’) People’s changes in the relationship to the marketer and/or competitor
Cooper's creative planning cycle Consists of six stages: familiarise, hypothesise, synthesise and inspire, optimise, evaluate and review
Cooperative advertising Presents a joint presentation of manufacturer and distributor involves ‘marketing monies’ being available either upfront or retrospectively applied
Copy platform The basic verbal or written message to be conveyed
Copywriters Those responsible for producing creative ideas and marketing communications text or 'copy'. Typically work in partnership with art directors
Corporate image The impression of an organisation, created by the corporate identity, as perceived by the target audiences
Corporate marketing public relations/product marketing public relations Two areas of marketing public relations focused towards the corporate and product brands, respectively
Corporate personality The composite organisational traits, characteristics and spirit
Corporate public relations (CPR) Those parts of public relations not directly concerned with a marketing or brand focus but take a broader corporate or whole business perspective
Correct recognition Accurate logo recognition
Corrective advertising The requirement for advertisers to produce promotional material to correct any previous advertising considered to be misleading or incorrect
Cost per thousand (CPT) Measure of media efficiency; represents the cost of achieving a given coverage Valued impressions (VIPs) is a refinement of CPT, calculated by assigning 'weights' to the various components of the target audience. For example, all housewives might be included in the target audience. However, it may be decided that housewives with children are of greater interest. It would be possible to assign a weight of, say, 60 to housewives with children and 40 to those without children to represent their relative importance. The housewives with children would then contribute more to the resulting CPT calculation than those with no children
Countercyclical Communicating during low season, counter to competition
Country of origin image or positioning Essence of the brand is usually associated with the country where product is manufactured Guinness – Irish Celtic soul
California Wines – new world wines
BMW – German engineering
Coverage Another term for reach
Covert communications Hidden or not broadcasted communications may be recreated by users of the brand and the brand communications Viral marketing, loyalty expressed by wearing clothes and using brands
CPM models Consumer processing models referred to as being about the ‘fantasies, feelings and fun’ of consumption
CPR See Corporate public relations
CPT See Cost per thousand
Creative brief Document that provides an outline of the creative task and the basis for creatives to develop their solutions
Creative hot shops Agencies specialising in creative ideas and solutions, other aspects of campaigns being handled by other agencies
Creative methods Creatives make use of a variety of techniques to aid the creative process, these include juxtaposition, free association, convergent thinking, divergent thinking, lateral thinking, brainstorming, experimentation and the use of swipe files
Creative platform Communications ‘big idea’ which gives structure to applied brand See Chapter 13
Creative scope The extent of creative flexibility afforded by the medium
Creative theme/concept The basic or fundamental creative idea to be conveyed
Creatives General term for art directors, designers and copywriters. Responsible for developing creative and design solutions
Credentials presentation An opportunity for selected agencies to present details of their backgrounds, history and achievements in order to convince a potential client to include them on its agency selection short list
Credibility How credible the brand signal is to consumers
Credit facilities Financial arrangements or promotions such as deferred payment schemes Buy Now Pay Later promotions
CRM See Customer relationship marketing
Crisis management The planned management response to potentially damaging circumstances
Cross-category promotion scheme Form of joint loyalty promotion involving organisations from different product categories. Frequently, customers earn points from a variety of suppliers, which are added together for later redemption
Cross-media presence A media-neutral approach where the message finds the target rather than fits into the medium and is placed in different media channels
Cross-promotions A joint sales promotion by two or more brands
Cross-selling Selling other products to existing customers
CTR See Click-through rates
Culture Hollensen has defined culture as the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms and traditions among the members of an organisation or society. It is what defines a human community, its individuals, its social organisations as well as its economic and political systems. It includes both abstract ideas such as values and ethics, as well as material objects and services such as clothing, food, art and sports that are produced or valued by a group of people
Cultural capital Meaning ‘currency’ possessed by a celebrity which conveys significance to a target audience Black Eyed Peas have a lot of credibility with Pepsi’s target audience and this is transferred across from the celebrity to the brand
Culturally constituted world Meaning is derived from artefacts, brands and consumption as having cultural currency
Culturally transfusive triad Three traditional institutional pillars of influence over values in society: family, church and education
Current loyals People who buy the ‘right’ product most or all of the time
Customer authored myths User-negotiated image and meaning Stella Artois – user-projected ‘Wife Beater’ image aligned to use
Customer-based brand equity The value of the brand for companies
Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model Comprises six components: brand salience, brand performance, brand imagery, brand judgements, brand feelings andbrand resonance
Customer contact management The strategic and tactical tasks involved in the management of positive, personal communication between an organisation and its audiences; recognising this should be complementary to image and brand management
Customer contact points All positive or negative exposure to communications across ALL media and ALL messages Uniforms, shop logos, advertising, packaging, 0800 call numbers are all examples of points of contact which may affect perceptions of a brand
Customer equity Total positive and negative customer experience with the brand. Assets of customer loyalty from which brand can grow
Customer relationship management The marriage of sales management and database management provides a very efficient approach to managing customers, both in terms of account management and customer service
Customer information and service The systems in place to allow customers to contact the organisation quickly and easily
Customer lifetime value The total estimated revenue that a customer is expected to be worth to a company usually expressed as net present value (NPV) i.e. after discounting for inflation
Customer loyalty The degree of loyalty a customer has towards a brand or an organisation. It is something that companies endeavour to encourage but given the competitive environment frequently find that customers are not so loyal to a single brand or organisation. An alternative perspective is to reverse the consideration and think about the degree of loyalty a company has towards its customers. See also Brand loyalty
Customisation Targeted communication typically associated with direct and online marketing Video advertising combines the storytelling power of video with accurate, direct targeting
Cut-off points The point that separates tolerable attribute levels from non-tolerable attribute levels
Cyber-identity Creation of alter-ego identity Avatars in Second Life
Cyber-marketing Term used to describe marketing activities using e-media