Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
E-communities Online sites where consumers with special interests (e.g. young mothers) aggregate around professionally generated content They may be B2B sites like, or or other more public sites such as parent blogs like and which engender a sense of brand and user e-community
Econometric modelling The use of mathematical techniques to determine the effects of changes in marketing communications on sales and profits
Economy When undertaking any marketing communications activity, this has to be done within resource constraints. Greatest effect is sought even within a limited budget. See also Efficiency and Effectiveness
Economy of scale Increased efficiency with size
Effective frequency The number of exposures that give the greatest attainable effect at the lowest cost
Effective reach Refinement of the reach calculation. Effective reach is concerned with reaching target audience members with a minimum frequency, and thereby with impact. Only those target audience members who receive the marketing communication a specified number of times would be included in the effective reach measurement
Effectiveness The magnitude of results
Efficiency Results (output) in relation to effort (input)
Ego-defensive function Attitudes formed to protect the person, either from external threats or internal feelings of insecurity
Ego-eco contradiction The purchase of a car that fulfils the need for performance and social status but needs to deal with the conscience consumption element of damaging the environment
Elaboration Likelihood Model Proposed by Petty and Cacioppe, the Elaboration Likelihood Model recognises that individuals are sometimes willing to think very carefully about a piece of marketing communication and sometimes hardly think about it at all. The degree of amount of thoughtful consideration in these circumstances is called elaboration. It represents the amount of effort the recipients are willing to put in for themselves and, in this way, add to the communication by bringing in their own thoughts, attitudes, feelings and experiences. The nature and amount of elaboration will have an impact on the persuasiveness of the communication
Electronic data interchange (EDI) Method of transferring data from computer to computer
Electronic inks and electronic paper Mechanism of producing text and images by using small electronic impulses on special 'paper' that changes colour in response to electrical charge
Electronic marketing The utilisation of the Internet to transact business; also known as e-commerce
Ellipsis A gap or omission that has to be completed
Email Order confirmation, product launch and offer announcements, and the fraternity communications of being part of an online club are techniques used by the like of Amazon, Apple, Dell and all online retailers with whom we willingly open up lines of communication
e-media Any digital, interactive or online communication platform such as the Internet, interactive TV and electronic multimedia
Emotional attachment Strong ties that bind a person to an object
Emotional benefits Affective attachment to a brand Harley-Davidson – HOGS group affiliation demonstrating pride of users in using the brand
Emotional level of brand Affective connection over and above rational reasons for brand purchase. L’Oréal – Because You’re Worth It!
Emotional selling point The emotional reason for choosing the brand The ‘retail therapy’ of shopping at a particular shop may provide a reassuring lift in individual spirit
Emotional selling proposition Brands which evoke unique associations over and above the functional aspects of the brand Nostalgia of brands like Bisto or the magic of brands like Disney
Emotional value Acquired when a brand precipitates or perpetuates specific feelings ‘Retro’ brands feed into our nostalgic associations which transfer us back to a different place or time in our lives through memories of family, youth or formative years
Endogenous communication process factors Factors within the process which can distort message and meaning (e.g. placing an ad in an inappropriate medium or inappropriate creative treatment) Marks & Spencer classically misinterpreted its target audience as white, obese, middle-aged females. This was factually correct, but alienated their actual and potential audience
End-user consumers Final recipient or customer in the supply chain
Engagement Consumers buy in to message. Audience participation in the communication
Environmental influences Culture, social class, family, personal and situational influences
Epanorthosis Making an assertion so as to call it into question by immediate rephrasing for intensification or justification HP Computers used ‘It may look like a target. In fact, it’s more like a vault’
Epistemic value The ‘curiosity’ factor in a purchase – new adventures, different places and expanding experience Holiday companies tap into this need for ‘travel to broaden the mind’
EPOS Electronic Point of Sale
Ethnocentrism The practice of assuming that others think and believe as we do
Ethical sourcing Checking the provenance of product supply (e.g. Fair Trade)
Evaluation after purchase The process where it is determined if the purchase was good or bad
Evaluation of alternatives The choice made between products selected as being suitable to fulfil needs or help solve the problem of a consumer through purchase The Apple Mac case study clearly shows how its communications are geared towards demonstrating the functional and symbolic differences between Apple Mac and the competition
Evaluative criteria The aspects of a product that are evaluated before a purchase
Event management PR communications initiated by the organisation but perceived as having been not sent by the organisation
Events Social events, news conferences, seminars, outings, factory tours, trade shows, exhibits, contests, competitions, anniversaries, annual general meetings
Evoked set Brands which come to mind when purchase decision process starts
Exchange relationships Communication (and transactional) interactions between company and customer. Basic level trade based on financial benefits of value proposition; builds social bonds between company and customer; and customised relationships
Exclusive distribution Selling the brand in one store/store chain only
Exhibitions and trade shows Temporary events for the purpose of displaying and/or selling products; usually based around a particular theme, product category or customer grouping, They are principally designed to bring together potential buyers and sellers under one roof
Experience-based fit Sponsorship is congruent with social use Heineken sponsoring World Cup Rugby because they are both part of the same experience when people socialise: drinking beer and watching the games
Experiential Where experience plays a big part in brand use Store ambience, olfactory stimuli of shopping at Zara rather than buying clothes online
Experiential appeals The brand's appeals to the consumers' desire for sensory pleasure, variety and cognitive stimulation
Experiential learning Learning through behaviour and experience. Learning by doing
Experiential marketing Creates or recreates the brand experience, linking use to situational benefits, with goal of creating affinity and/or brand community The epitome of this phenomenon is Disney
Experiment and test method of budget setting Controlled experiments may prove the efficacy of campaign components within a sample market, amongst a range of communication mix elements or the space purchased in the various media
Explicitly planned Deliberately overtly encoded mix elements Cristiano Ronaldo and José Marinho openly endorse their homeland on the eve of Euro 2008 for Turismo de Portugal
Explicitly projected marketing meaning The intrinsic attributes of product and packaging, distribution The ostentatious packaging of Ferrero Rocher chocolates projects a luxury image
Expert Knowledgeable/experienced with the product/mission
Exposure (planning) How many people that are likely be reached by the advertising
Exposure (viewer) Actual contact (aware or unaware) with a stimulus
Extended marketing mix 7Ps way of classifying the marketing mix into seven categories: product, price, promotion, place, people, process and physical evidence
Extended problem solving Where the purchase decision is complicated and requires comprehensive information search and evaluation before the purchase decision because of the nature of the brand or as a result of limited brand loyalty Expensive clothes, cars and brands with higher risk or innovative
Extended self How consumers use possessions to create an identity Cosmetics or deodorants can offer higher self-esteem; perceived improvement of status can be enhanced by the acquisition of a new car or clothing
External brand promise Suggested by integrated marketing communications Carlsberg: ‘Probably the Best Lager in the World’
External search Active, outside information search Shopping trips and surfing the web
Extraneous communication factors Outside environmental influences like culture, ecological considerations, competitive statements, changing values and so on which may distort the message French energy company EDF used the iconic Easter Island statues, drawing on the associations of longevity, claiming that it ‘develops tomorrow's energy for future generations’. The Easter Island population has collapsed from deforestation and overpopulation. This has resulted in terrible PR
Extranet Website which allows controlled communications (of an intranet) between the organisation and outside agencies and intermediaries while still preventing access by the general public
Extrinsic representational qualities Brands help us identify real and symbolic function and meaning: emotional and psychological needs such as status, recognition, self-esteem, nostalgia, affiliation, spiritual satisfaction, companionship projected through consumption of brands
Eye fixation Measurement of a person’s actual eye movements (watching)
Eye movement camera Equipment used for evaluating advertisements in print. A special camera is used to track a respondent's eye movement as an advertisement is scanned. A line tracks all movement and in this way a clear indication is given as to which parts of the advertisement are looked at