Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Fad Short-lived trend
False recognition False beliefs about seeing a logotype previously
Family life cycle Consists of stages as the partnership and family develop including bachelor stage, newly weds, full nest 1, full nest 2, full nest 3, empty nest 1, empty nest 2, solitary survivor (working), solitary survivor (retired). With the increasing incidence of single parents, separations and divorces, new categories to represent these situations could be considered
Family umbrella branding The organisation has a corporate brand and a separate brand for its products Marks and Spencer's St Michael brand
Feature advertising Retailer-sponsored ads with current price deals
Feeling-based objectives Changing attitudes through the development of brand identity and image, creation of shared values and associations with the brand and company
Fear appeals The practice of provoke fear or shock to viewers of marketing communications
Fee-based remuneration A method of charging a client for work rendered based on an agreed sum of money (a fee)
Feedback This occurs when there is two-way communication, so that communications flow between sender and audience and back again
Film Where used, part of the print production process involving photographic reproduction
Flash ads or flash banners Interactive, animated online advertising
Flexibility The ability to vary the communication
FMCG Fast-moving consumer goods Typified, for example, by such products as soap powders, cosmetics, sweets and crisps
Focus group A group of people who discuss a particular issue together
Foreign branding The use of foreign pronunciation of a brand name Two premium ice cream brands, Häagen-Dazs, a name which doesn’t mean anything in any Scandinavian language, and Frusen Glädjé, which almost means ‘frozen joy’ in Swedish, and which includes a map of Scandinavia on the packaging, are actually manufactured in the USA
Four Cs, Four Es, Four Ps of communication 4Cs – It is proposed that integrated marketing communications should have coherence, consistency, and continuity and should be complementary
4Es – It is proposed that integrated marketing communications should be enhancing, economical, efficient and effective
4Ps – Way of classifying the marketing mix into four categories: product, price, promotion and place
Fragmentation of media Rapid increase in available media channels to place and view communication messages
Free item prize promotion Consumer promotions with a premium gift as the prize
Frequency The number of times the audience is exposed to the marketing communication
Function-based fit Sponsorship is congruent with brand use Yamaha pianos sponsoring a piano recital
Air France providing transport for the French football team’s international matches
Shell sponsoring motor sports
Adidas sponsoring athletics
Functional benefits What the brand is. What the brand offers as a proposition VW – German engineering
Volvo – safety
Curly Music – ‘Music by musicians for musicians’, offers local instrument expertise
Functional brand Performs basic problem solving Ronseal: ‘Does what it says on the tin’
Functional meaning Ability to fulfil basic utilitarian needs and work properly
Functional value The capacity of the brand to fulfil ‘utilitarian’ or practical requirements Soap powder brands are communicated as ‘washing whiter’ than alternatives and focus on very basic functional ingredient