Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Headlines Main element in the creative treatment. In packaging, the product name and company name will be the equivalent concept
Hedonistic Emotional and experiential aspects
Hedonistic–experiential Consumption based on pleasure

Cailler, Suchard, Kohler, Sprüngli and Maestrani are Swiss luxury chocolate brands all offering an indulgent consumption experience

HEM model Hedonistic, experientially-based communication model
Heterophilous groups Outside an individual’s personal network rather than by the mass media
Heuristics Simplistic problem-solving rules
Hierarchies of effects (models) Models that describe the stages individuals are said to progress through in moving from initial unawareness to final action such as purchase and consumption Awareness-Interest-Desire-Action or AIDA (Elmo Lewis): buyers move from one state to the next on the way to consumption
Awareness-Knowledge-Liking-Preference-Conviction-Purchase (Lavidge and Steiner)
Awareness-Comprehension-Conviction-Action (Colley): relating it to the objective to be achieved.
DAGMAR (Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) associates the sequence with management objectives and an indication that results can be measured
Exposure-Attention-Comprehension-Acceptance-Retention (McGuire)
Awareness-Trial-Reinforcement or ATR (Ehrenberg): approaches the question of communications effects from a behaviourist perspective. Unlike the sequential models, Ehrenberg argues that buyers are generally very aware of the range of alternative products and brands available. He argues that buyers have considerable buying experience and that they follow relatively stable buying patterns. The communications emphasis is thus shifted to the reinforcement of benefits gained from previous consumption
High-context communications Most of the information of the communication relies on factors external to the communication itself; it relies on contextual cues to give it meaning. It requires a high level of interpretation by the receiver
High involvement Purchases which require in-depth decision making The purchase of a family car or holiday or a computer system for an organisation require members of the relevant DMU
Historic basis method of budget setting Previous levels of expenditure, cause-and-effect results and the appropriateness of the message, media and mix
Hit rate Term used to describe the number of times a Web page or site is visited
Home shopping/delivery Purchases where delivery is separated from transaction
Homonym One word can be taken in two senses An ad for Land Rover played on the word ‘spring’ meaning both the season and key feature of the brand
Homophilous groups Family and friends
Hybrid communication Communication that combines traits from advertising and PR
Hyperbole (the opposite is litotes) Exaggerated or extreme claim ‘Experience colour so rich you can feel it’ (Cover Girl lipstick)
Hypertext link Link (a web address or graphic) on a web page, a simple computer mouse click on which moves the viewer to a new web page