Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Identification Relating the message to audience self-perceptions
Identity media The visual identity can be projected through logos, stationery, signage, literature, the physical evidence of buildings and interiors, uniforms and dress codes
 IDU See Important, deliverable and unique benefits
Image, brand and relational management Describes how brands can evoke positive perceptions, differentiate and gain competitive advantage, enable faster introduction of new products, reinforce brand awareness and improve overall company and brand image and enhance trust
Image-based fit Sponsorship is congruent with brand image Lexus sponsoring the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra
Grand Hotêl accommodating Luciano Pavarotti

Swatch sponsoring Avant
Impact The exposures/media’s ability to generate attention and stick in memory. The coverage and effectiveness of reaching target audience. One of the four most significant concepts in media planning along with reach, frequency and media cost
At a subjective level, 'impact' is a qualitative value referring to the strength of impression made by a campaign or particular piece of marketing communication. In part, impact is achieved by the creative approach adopted, such as through the use of size, colour, typography, illustration and photography. But media selection and planning also play major parts through the right choice of media, positioning and repetition
Measured when opportunity to see or hear has actually taken place. 'Commercial impact' is a term used in TV to represent the viewing of any commercial by a single viewer. Two impacts would be equivalent to one person seeing the commercial twice or two people seeing the commercial once. The UK population is exposed to over 650 billion commercial impacts per year. Internet broadband is in 50% of UK homes and 90% of all UK businesses are connected to the Internet
Placing a food advertisement in colour in Good Housekeeping would have a higher impact than if it appeared in black and white (mono advertising) in the local free paper
Multiple insertions of the advertisement would further increase effective reach
Implicit brand ambassadors Customers who ‘wear the brand’ and convey brand messages
Implicitly symbolic meaning Projected through endorsement, semiotics and word of mouth
Important, deliverable and unique benefits (IDU) The brand should focus on important, deliverable, and unique benefits
Impression management Achieving communication goals by influencing the impressions formed by an audience through controlling or regulating information
Impression (media effectiveness) How most web advertising is sold and the cost is quoted in terms of the cost per thousand impressions
Impulse purchases Unplanned purchases that are motivated by intense emotions
Inbound telemarketing Receiving telephone calls from customers
Incentives Inducements to encourage customers to take up offers
Individual brand congruity When communication of a brand’s essence resonates with a consumer and corresponds to their individual self-image
Individual identity construction Where an individual is a consumer of communicated messages (symbols) as much as products in creating identity
Individual meaning interpretation perspective A view that sees communication as being symmetrical negotiated BETWEEN company and customer
Inept set The brands in a category that the consumer knows about and is not choosing from
Influencers Those people who exert an influence (positive or negative) on an organisation or its public
Infomercials TV commercials designed to convey large amounts of information
Information stream The flow of information used in the integrated marketing communications planning process as part of the CAMPAIGN planning model
Information search The process in which consumers gather information from marketing communications about alternatives in preparation of a purchase
informational motivations Motivations based on utilitarian needs. Positioning features solely based on helping make decisions ‘Contains less fat’ McCain Over Chips ‘Only 5% Fat’
Ingredient brand A branded attribute for a host brand
Innovation diffusion Term given to the process whereby a new product enters and is subsequently adopted by the market. Most frequently associated with the work of Carl Rogers who has proposed that diffusion and adoption is characterised by customers falling into a range of types: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards The adoption of HDTV is still in its infancy in Europe, whereas there are 141 cell phones to every UK citizen as this market is now saturated
Innovative late entrant Brand achieving relative positioning but differentiated in some significant way First Direct in banking
Direct Line in insurance
Virgin in all sectors
Input-based brand perspective Where branding is seen as instrumental in directing resources to affect customer response
Insertions Refers to the number of times an advertisement is placed in a medium. Discounts are available for multiple insertions
Institute of Practitioners in Advertising One of a number of professional advertising industry bodies based in the UK
Intangibility Consumer benefits which can’t be touched or held Kudos of owning a Louis Vuitton bag
Integrated marketing communications Coordination of all media and the full marketing communications mix wherever the customer comes into contact with the company
Integrated marketing communications mix In its simplest form, the process of integrating all elements of the marketing communications mix across all customer contact points to achieve greater brand coherence
Interaction Where there is two-way communication and online communications is not a mere publishing tool
Interactive Two-way dialogues are facilitated
Interactive press kits Online PR elements such as downloadable materials in PDF format and instant downloadable press agency photographs
Interactivity Allows advertisers greater accuracy in promotional activities and calls to action techniques Interactive video content can achieve higher response rates than interactive ads on TV
Interference Like noise, interference creates message distortion. A distinction can be made between the two by suggesting that interference is deliberately generated noise
Inter-media Refers to the media planners' decision of which medium to use between the media classes, i.e. the selection between TV, radio, cinema, press and posters (outdoor and transport). Some planners also include direct mail and the Internet as main media classes. Inter-media decisions are media decisions at the broadest level
Intermediary support Distributor, wholesaler, agent or retailer sales, logistics or promotional efforts to underpin manufacturer’s brand
Intermercial The Internet version of a TV commercial, which appears between viewing of web pages
Internal communications Company newsletters, staff briefings, training
Internal market or internal context Employees, especially in service organisations which have customer-facing personnel, are vital in building company image, customer service before and after the sale An ‘internal market’ communications campaign may use notice boards, training, newsletters, incentive schemes, intranets and other elements of the internal marketing communications mix
Internal PR Company newsletters, staff briefings, training
Internal search Information search in memory The trend for ‘retro brands’ plays on the fond memories of previous positive brand experiences
Internet Collection of globally interrelated computer networks that facilitate computer communications
Internet service providers (ISPs) Organisations that provide access to the Internet
Interpretivist communication process Social definition paradigm based on social interactionism where the use of symbols and meanings communicates brand messages
Interpretivist perspective View that gives credence to individual, symbolic interpretation of communications
Intra-media Media decisions within a media class. It involves the selection of specific media vehicles
Intranet Electronic internal network facilitating communication with employees
Intrinsic product qualities The functional aspects of what the core product ‘can do’ ABS braking systems and high-performing engines
Involvement A concept that captures consumer interest and engagement in a product. It varies from low to high
Irony A statement that means the opposite of what is said Acuvue disposable contacts: ‘We spent years developing this incredibly comfortable contact lens, and this is how you treat it (with a picture of a finger flicking a lens away)’
HBO cable TV: ‘Just another wholesome family sitcom (with a picture of the male lead licking cream off thighs)’
ISO paper system Internationally agreed system of standard paper sizes
ISP See Internet service provider
Itv Interactive TV
ITV Independent Television: UK-based commercial TV network channel