Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Lag effect Duration of effect from one exposure. Describes the situation when there may be a time delay before there is a noticeable audience response to a piece of marketing communications
Lead time Time required prior to the distribution date to ensure all print work is completed
Leaking buckets Spill between consecutive steps
Life stage Segmentation based on the different stages of life that people go through, incorporating such factors as age, marital status and family size The Family Life Cycle (FLC) is an example of life-stage segmentation
Lifestyle People’s ways of living, often defined as their actions, interests and opinions
Limbic signal Stimulus that forms perceptions by way of evoking instincts
Limited problem solving A purchase process characterised by low involvement and where there is limited information search and evaluation before the purchase decision because of the nature of the brand or as a result of long-term brand loyalty
Lineage Advertising space that is bought by the line and presented in classified sections of the press
Linear brand narrative Storyline which goes in one direction. Communication which is injected or transmitted into the target audience
List of values (LOV) Measurement and categorisation of values
Listenership (readership/viewership) Estimate of the size of an audience determined through research. Each of the main media has bodies responsible for producing relevant data. Readership is produced by multiplying the circulation of a publication by the average number of readers per copy. See also BARB, CAA, JICNARS, JICPAR, MVR, RAJAR
Lobbying ‘Political marketing’ to governmental bodies and other persuasive groups to favour the interests of the lobbyist. Not focused on a specific product or mission, but rather to influence the company/organisation’s macro environment. PR communications initiated by the organisation, and perceived as having been sent by the organisation.
Location-shifted Viewing of communications not limited to static situations where audience is captive Sky Sports can be experienced at home or in a social setting
Longevity of message Constant presence of commercial message; extended brand narrative
Long-form content Creates relevant or salient items or storylines which sell experience within a framework of branding over an extended exposure time BMW Films produce made-for online ‘webisodes’ (films and videos)

Three-minute ‘bookends’ which are made-for TV and online commercials instead of getting a brief mention when company is sponsoring programme
Long-tail brand building Elongated narrative of different stories and campaign elements which add value and fabric to the brand proposition and is made up of all the various communication elements and messages Volvo has now reconstructed a story built on being fun, cool, ecologically sound and a brand to be shared with friends; all different stories but all consistent with the overarching brand narrative: ‘Life is Better Lived Together’
Long-tail demand Audience/demand is distributed across many small media/products
LOV See List of values
Low-context communications The communication is largely self-contained, and does not rely on contextual cues to convey its meaning
Low involvement Purchases which do not require in-depth decision making
Loyalty Commitment to the marketer
Loyalty card schemes Long-term promotional reward activity in exchange for customer information and purchases
Loyalty marketing Marketing activities intended to encourage customers to continue purchasing a particular product or purchasing from a particular supplier