Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Narrowcast Restricted radio, television, video and audio transmission
National Readership Survey (NRS) Provides information about the readership of the main newspapers and magazines. A report is produced every six months covering a period of 12 months.
Negative space Giving the background precedence over the main element in the communication
Negative synergy Term used to represent the negative effects of not achieving synergy between integrated marketing communications elements. Lack of integration may not merely result in no synergistic benefits, but in detrimental consequences that could be caused through confusion, lack of effectiveness and efficiency, or misunderstanding
Neighbourhood RISC A commercially available system that combines psychographics and geodemographics to provide an insight into why particular brands are attractive to particular consumer groups and how best to design promotional campaigns that appeal to prospective purchasers. Customers or prospects are targeted by socio-cultural type rather than by demographics – it targets by attitudes rather than behaviour. Neighbourhood RISC subdivides consumers based on three key motivational types: from self-focused to socially conscious, from conservative to explorative, from locally focused to globally aware. This results in 10 socio-cultural types; explorers, pleasure seekers, mobile networkers, avid consumers, social climbers, care givers, moral guides, traditionalists, guardians and survivors
Need recognition The moment when consumers realise that they need to make a purchase
Need and wants Needs are basic level requirements. Wants can be more aspirational symbolic purchases to acquire status, affiliation or for ego
Needs profile Requirement of category Cat hygiene – ‘catlit compound’
Negative framing Showing the product as a solution to a current problem
Negative returns effect Describes the situation where, although marketing budgets may be increased and more effort expended, the actual effect created is negative, not positive, and further effort is counterproductive unless significant changes are made
Negativity effect Negative information is perceived as more important
Negotiated meaning Individual or group interpretation of communications The Stella Artois case study in Chapter 1 is an example of a brand’s meaning being subverted by actual users rather than the transmitted communications
Net coverage/reach Total reach less allowance for duplication
New media Usually most associated with new electronic media such as the Internet, interactive TV and electronic multimedia. Fast becoming an outdated term of reference
News Press releases and news conferences aimed at generating interest through the media or handling negative publicity
Niche position Have a smaller but sometimes lucrative sub-category market position Cricket fashion wear
No frills Value-only operations offering so-called ‘non-brands’ The Japanese brand Muji
Noise Distortions created in the encoding or decoding process that can result in inaccurate interpretation of meaning
Non-homogeneous, fragmented marketplace Audiences made up of dissimilar segments with different needs and media behaviour patterns
Nonlinear brand narrative Storyline which goes in one direction. Communication which is injected or transmitted into the target audience
Non-personal communications Traditionally one-way, asymmetrical communications, transmitted indirectly through a medium like TV for advertising, an event for sponsorship, a pack for sales promotion, or a retailer for merchandising
Non-traditional media Unusual channels other than TV advertising TV screens in doctors’ waiting rooms, airport lounges, post-offices; posters at public events or in golf clubs; combination of magazines and promotions and the use of Internet advertising
Non-users People who don’t use any product in the category
NRS See National Readership Survey