Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Objective and task method Budgeting system whereby budgets are set based on a determination of the objectives to be achieved and the means by which they are expected to be achieved
Objectives End results sought to be achieved
On-demand viewing Viewers choose as and when viewing takes place
Offers Propositions made to customers indicating what they will receive and what they will have to give
Off-line Use of an e-medium/computer disconnected from a modem
Ohanian's celebrity endorser credibility scale Consists of attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise
One message The single ‘voice’ of all communication which speaks uniformly to audiences
One-size-fits-all Uniform, mass communication brand model encouraged by restricted media and limited time available to expose audiences to messages
One-stop shop Term used to describe agencies that claim to offer complete marketing communications solutions. Through-the-line and full-service agencies are associated terms
One-way asymmetrical model One-way PR model using persuasion and manipulation to influence how target audiences behave in accordance with organisational objectives
One-way communications Communications from a sender to a receiver with no feedback or dialogue.
One-way media Media used to transmit uni-directional communications messages TV has traditionally been used to create awareness, launch, position, reposition and is good at ensuring ‘top-of-mind’ reinforcement with essentially passive recipients
Ongoing dialogues Continuous communications between company and customer
Ongoing search External information search that is not related to a specific purchase
Online presence Communications which engage on the web either solely in conjunction with other offline communications
Online virtual communities Social networking groups which encourage the feeling of conversational community Facebook and Bebo
Open-source marketing Interactivity-induced consumer involvement which enhances brand experience by allowing users to subvert message content and negotiate communication meaning
Operant conditioning Reinforcing behaviour
Opinion leaders (and mavens) Those who are seen as having impartial credibility because of some level of formal expertise (e.g. celebrities) may act as credible endorsers by transferring meaning to a product and have influence over consumers from their own social group
Opportunities to see/hear (OTS/OTH) A measure of frequency. It is the number of times in a specified time period (e.g. the duration of a campaign) that an average member of the target audience is exposed to the media/message. One OTS or OTH is the opportunity for a target audience member to see or hear an item of marketing communication once. It represents the potential to see or hear. It is not a guarantee of the marketing communications being seen or heard
Optimisation Maximising media usage efficiency
Optimum stimulation level The amount of information/stimuli a person prefers
Orchestration Graphic way of referring to the process of integrating marketing communications. organisation
Organisational/ audience dialogues Any communication which ‘talks’ explicitly or implicitly to target audiences
OTH Opportunities to hear. See Opportunities to see
OTS See Opportunities to see
Outbound telemarketing Telephone calls to customers
Output-based branding perspective Centring on consumers’ interpretations of what brands can help them achieve
Outside-in approach to integrated marketing communications Way of looking at marketing communications by adopting a perspective that starts by first looking outside the organisation for direction and understanding of the task required, and then determines marketing communications by secondly considering the organisation itself
Overt communications Open communications such as advertising, TV, word of mouth, writing or consumers signalling to each other
Overstatement Exaggerated message
Own-brand range Manufacturers may be forced to or willingly make ‘unbranded’ product which may be sold on as part of a distributor’s branded range. This may undermine a manufacturer’s brand or provide an entry into a market segment or a targeted customer UK department store John Lewis has a line of own brands designed by Italy's Guzzini and the British designer, Nick Munro
Similarly, Sainsbury, teamed up with big names such as Sir Terence Conran to produce an affordable own-brand designer range

Own-label brand

Product that carries the name of the resellers – wholesalers or retailers – rather than the manufacturers, and is sold exclusively through the resellers' outlets