Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Packaging and packaging variation Often used to launch new products on the back of others. The same brand in many different packages Kellogg’s Special K cereal bars were given away free on packs of Kellogg’s Special K breakfastcereal
Paradessence Taken from Alex Shakar’s Savage Girl. ‘Paradessence’ is the mutually exclusive state that brands promise and have to be simultaneously gratified Controlled danger of theme parks; sanitised air travel; ice cream melds eroticism and innocence
Paradox A self-contradictory or impossible statement Kodak: ‘This picture was taken by someone who didn’t bring a camera’
Franklin batting glove: ‘Mark McGuire hit 42 home runs last year. But we held the bat’
Peckham’s rule A rule of thumb for setting media budget
Peer-to-peer communications Communication from customer to customer (C2C) without company mediation Facebook is a social network site where consumers talk to each other
Perceived fit The connections between a brand and a product category or between two brands/two product categories
Perceived risk The consequences of making a purchase. May vary from low risk to high risk
Percentage of sales method of budget setting Fixed proportionate amount based on expected level of sales. This amounts to a formulaic approach of sorts and is often based on past experience or competitive or industry reference points
Perceptual boundary The brand’s limitation when it comes to brand extension Perceptual boundary
Perceptual or perceptual positioning Communicated messages which place the brand in the minds of the target audience Carling has successfully positioned its brand as a young man’s rite of passage drink using affiliation as the creative platform
Permissive Consumers consensually ‘opt-in’. Viewers choose participation Signing up for a website, giving mobile phone numbers or using an 0800 number to subscribe
Personal communications Aimed at managing sales, service and customer contact. These are mainly two-way, symmetrical dialogue, transmitted directly through face-to-face sales contact, telemarketing, mail, email, and all the interactive electronic platforms of Internet, intranet and extranet
Personal factors or individual differences Demographics, psychographics, values and personality; consumer resources; motivation; knowledge; and attitudes; self-image, health, beauty
Personal selling Two-way communication in which a seller interprets brand features in terms of brand benefits
Personal video recorder (PVR) Personal video recorder, which allows taping of TV programmes enabling user to watch and record simultaneously and skip advertising content
Phonemes Individual sounds that convey associations Shhhhhhh……….weppes or Churchill’s ‘Oh Yessss!’
Planning (retail visit) The degree of planning before a store visit
Podcasts Non-live broadcasting, MP3-type communications directly with target audiences for the purpose of enhancing relationships and giving user full control of content Car manufacturers like Mercedes, distributors and retailers like H&M use the podcast facility to extend the brand story and enhance communications online
Point-of-purchase displays and merchandising Promotional materials designed to enhance, remind or persuade consumers in campaign period announcing new product or promotional change. Merchandise materials located physically or virtually prior to sale transaction or within sale location
Points of difference Features of brands which have an added dimension lifting them above the competition (aka ‘customer delight’) Mercedes Benz, Sony and Harley-Davidson all exhibit superiority over competitors, either in their superior products or their brand narrative customer linkages
Points of parity Features and benefits shared by competing brands in a sector relevant to category need 24/7 next day delivery by Fedex, UPS and Parcelforce
Point-of-sale (POS) materials Merchandising material communicating messages in location where purchase occurs
Positioning a brand The functional or expressive location of a product or service in the ‘mind of the consumer’ Nintendo Wii case study demonstrates how this product has been positioned to capture the ‘non-gamers’ market
Positive framing Showing the positive effects of the brand’s benefits
Post-purchase evaluation Evaluation of satisfaction with product after the sale and possibly after consumption
Pre-campaign ‘buzz’ PR, word of mouth or advertising activities introducing concepts or characters prior to launch of brand in order to generate pre-release excitement
Premium incentive Promotions may encourage loyalty and may take the form of gifts or sales-related incentives
Premiums Proof of purchase ‘money-off’ premiums is an expensive way of creating consumer demand and encouraging retailers to stock product. Free samples of the product or introductory offers also help McDonald’s has tie-ins with Disney providing free gifts in its ‘Happy Meals’ related to the release and promotion of a movie or DVD
Press agency/publicity model One-way PR model using persuasion and manipulation to influence how target audiences behave in accordance with organisational objectives
Price buyers People who consistently buy the most expensive brand
Price promotion Promotion based solely on comparison of price to previous price point or to the competition
Price sensitivity The propensity for consumers to switch brands due to price changes in the market
Primary reputation targets Governments, government agencies, press, media, professional bodies, investors, and pressure groups are all examples of agencies which have influence over an organisation without being directly involved in any commercial relationship
Product experience Direct contact with a product
Product factors The physical, financial, social and psychological ‘perceived risk’ of use
Product life cycle Different stages in the market development of a product (category) is really the timeline for the life of the product, plotting the stages in the product’s journey, and is used to gauge customer communication needs at each point in time
Product/market space Segment(s) or product categories where competitor offers and/or customer needs are located Renault Espace people carrier
Product placement and programme sponsorship Non-interrupting exposure of a product in the surrounding content. PR communications initiated by the organisation, but perceived as having NOT been sent by the organisation When Peter Parker, as Spider-Man, snagged his webbing on a can of Dr. Pepper, this was a very tenuous link to the plot and an obvious example of sponsorship by product placement
Product retail brands Primarily providers of a private label proposition with brands distributed through third party retailers Germany’s Adidas, Japanese Sony, the UK’s Burberry and American Levi’s
Product or service sampling Free product or service to trial with key customers or test market to prospective segments. May be done by sampling, free product, or extended credit facilities to encourage retailers to experience the product with a view to gaining interest and confidence in selling the manufacturer’s brand
Profane consumption Unimportant consumption that fulfils everyday goals
Profitability Profit related to money spent
Programming Non-advertising content with a more or less obvious commercial intent
Psychological symbolic meaning Culturally constituted significance of brand Rites of passage products which signify conformity, maturing (alcohol) or recaptured youth (retro brands which remind us of previous usage in our earlier years)
Public information model One-way PR model using monologue communication techniques to disseminate organisational and brand information
Public relations Communication targeted at the general public and wider stakeholders
Public service activities Cause-related marketing is an area where companies can build goodwill with a community or audience
Publications Annual reports, brochures, articles, company newsletters, magazines, audio-visual materials, intranets, websites
Publicity The message becomes part of the medium’s content (often called ‘editorial material’ as opposed to the advertising that is separated from editorial) and this has a life of its own. PR communications initiated by the organisation, but not perceived as having been sent by the organisation
Publics (aka stakeholders, targets, audiences, market domains) Any group that has an actual or potential interest in, or impact on, a company’s ability to achieve its objectives
Pun or resonance pun The product of a context meant to imply an association (sometimes dubiously)
Purchase cycle Time lapse between consecutive purchases
Purchase facilitation Buyer’s assurance that other marketing factors (marketing mix) will not hinder purchase
Purchase intentions Consumers expressed or implied stage in decision-making process
Purchase motivations Generalised needs that may be used in the marketing communications to link to need recognition
PVR See Personal video recorder