Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
R2C push/pull strategies Communications by retailers aimed at consumers
RAJAR Radio Joint Audience Research. This body is jointly owned by the BBC and the Commercial Radio Companies Association. It is responsible for conducting national and local surveys for the radio industry as a whole on a quarterly basis
Ratchet effect Combined effect of advertising and sales promotions
Rating The percentage of individuals or homes exposed to an advertising medium (magazines are referred to as ‘coverage’; out-of-home media is ‘showing’ which means the same as gross rating points)
Rating/HUT/share Where Rating = HUT × Share
Reach Also referred to as coverage or penetration. Along with frequency, impact and media cost it is one of the four most significant concepts in media planning. It is a measure of how many members of the target audience are reached by a medium or collection of media used in a campaign. Reach may be measured as a percentage or actual number. Reach is the number of target audience members exposed to the media/message at least once during a specified time period (e.g. duration of a campaign). Related terms are exposure, GRPs, TVRs and duplication
Reach schedule Reaching as many people as possible with message
Re-activation Extending purchase arrangements on accounts which have become dormant or inactive Online games software company Funcom had the first ever re-evaluation campaign for its MMO ‘Age of Conan: Hyborian Adventures’ which offered a ‘Come back to the game and receive 14-days free access with no strings’ promotion
Readership (viewership/listenership) Estimate of the size of an audience determined through research. Each of the main media has bodies responsible for producing relevant data. Readership is produced by multiplying the circulation of a publication by the average number of readers per copy. See also BARB, CAA, JICNARS, JICPAR, MVR, RAJAR
Rebates Turnover related discounts or retrospective rebates (i.e. based on upfront or cumulative sales) may persuade distributors to stock and encourage them to sell
Recall Evaluation of message content on the basis of aided (prompted) or unaided (unprompted) recollection of the stimulus material
Receiver Recipient of communication
Recency planning Achieving exposure of advertisements as close to the purchase occasion as possible
Receptiveness How easily influenced the audience is by the sender’s marketing communications
Recognition Visual and/or auditory memory Visual or sound logos and jingles help a kind of rote learning where consumers remember brands.
Recommendation Suggesting a person try an offer
Reciprocity A feeling that a favour should be returned
Recovery The company/organisation’s satisfactory solution to a problem
Reference groups Other consumers that the individual consumer relates to in his or her consumption pattern Peers, work colleagues, family, opinion leaders
Referral Suggesting the marketer contact a person
Refutational communication Overcoming negative aspects of the product/mission
Relational communications Brand community and network sharing See Chapter 9
Relationship exchanges Value-based arrangements other than mere transactions
Relationship marketing View that emphasises the importance of the relationships developed between an organisation and other parties including customers, partners, suppliers and the trade
Relative advantage Does the ‘innovation’ offer a reason to change from the current brand? The Sinclair C5 electric car didn’t; the ‘greener’ version of the Peugeot 407 Coupé does
Relative attitude People’s attitudes toward the company/organisation relative to the competitors
Relative behaviour People’s behaviour toward the company/organisation relative to the competitors
Relative position A brand’s unique ‘label’ which differentiates from the competition. Explicit and/or implicit reasons to differentiate from the competition UK furniture manufacturer Multiyork has adopted its logo to imply customer ownership: ‘MY Multiyork’
Renewal The continuation of signing customers up is key to extending communications and ensuring income streams
Re-patronage intentions Plans to revisit a store
Repeat purchase Continuation of loyalty with a brand
Repetition One of the ironies in copywriting is that copy should be kept brief and to the point but repetition is widely used to good effect and to create emphasis and memorability
Repositioning Realignment of brand both in terms of its location in the marketplace and in the minds of the target audience The Stella Artois case study is an example of a brand’s positioning being realigned to change the perception of the brand
Representation (individual) Mediated socialisation roles and traits Gender, family, friends
Representation (of marketing communications) Where the organisation replaces elements of its activities by technology performing a business process otherwise performed by employees Stock control, data updates, producing a sales channel
Representational brand qualities The symbolic aspects of the brand which projects what the brand ‘stands for’ The Ben & Jerry’s case study shows how an organisation can represent social concerns as well as selling product
Research and decision-making cycle The circular process of analysing, deciding and evaluating marketing communication plans and actions
Resonance A phrase takes on a different meaning when coupled with a picture Goodyear: ‘Will bite when cornered’ (with a picture of car splashing up water as it makes a turn)
Hormel rice: ‘Success rice brings out the ham in you’ (with a picture of ham pieces in sauce
Response latencies The exact amount of time it takes for consumers to recognise or recall a brand
Retailer brands Brands for stores or store chains
Return on assets Profit relative to the company’s total holdings
Revenue premium The combined premium of high volume and high price
Roll-out The incremental process of launching a marketing initiative into the market area by area until full market coverage is achieved
ROP See Run of paper
Rossiter and Percy's five communications effects Category need, brand awareness, brand attitude, brand purchase intention, purchase facilitation
Rhetorical figure Verbal or visual message that has more than one meaning
Rhetorical question Asking a question so as to make an assertion Hewlett-Packard fax: ‘Don’t you have something better to do?’
Rich media Advertising that contains perceptual or interactive elements more elaborate than the usual banner ad
Roadblock online advertising Flash ads which present online viewers with an option to view short online ads by voluntarily clicking on option
Robustness The ability of a component to work on a number of levels
Roughs or dummies Drawings or computer graphics indicating what the finished artwork will look like for any printed medium, e.g. packaging, posters, and press advertisements.
Routine problem solving Characterised by habit, this form of decision making involves little consideration of alternatives
Routinised response behaviour A purchase process characterised by involvement and low degree of information search. The search process is mainly internal
Run of paper (ROP) Run of paper – advertisements appearing in the non-classified sections of newspapers and magazines