Interactive Glossary

The Marketing Communications Glossary is included here to help you familiarise yourself with key words and descriptions. Using the website links and examples illustrated, examine how marketing communications has been applied by the various organisations in the different contexts. Evaluate how successful you think they have been in achieving their respective brand objectives. Can you think of any examples of your own?

Feature Description Illustration
Tachistoscope This is a simple device based on a photographic slide projector. Images are presented quickly and respondents are asked to report what they remember. The procedure gives an indication of the impact and quality of an ad or POS display
Tactical positioning Short-term application of marketing mix stimuli used to achieve and maintain strategic positioning ‘No frills’ branding projects a ‘value positioning’ 
Tactics Details of how strategies are intended to be achieved
Tag lines See Slogans
Target audience The people that the marketing communications are directed to. Those individuals or groups that are identified as having a direct or indirect effect on business performance, and are selected to receive marketing communications
Target Group Index (TGI) One of the largest continuous pieces of consumer research conducted in the UK. It involves around 24,000 respondents annually, and is produced by the British Market Research Bureau. It is an example of one of a number of surveys conducted by a variety of research companies that provide consumer data. TGI provides information about buying habits across thousands of branded products (some 2500), and includes data about the media habits, attitudes and opinions of respondents. It is an extremely valuable source of consumer and media information
Target market Market segment selected for specific targeting
Target marketing approaches Undifferentiated marketing (mass marketing), differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing, niche marketing and mass customisation marketing. Additionally, in international contexts: global marketing and global niche marketing. See also Market segmentation and Segmentation bases
Targeting The selection of one or more market segments
Telemarketing Combines sales management, database management and direct marketing using consumer knowledge to sell, cross-sell, monitor customer experience and so on in a personal but not face-to-face encounter
Television rating points (TVRs) Said to be the main currency in TV advertising. TVRs are an estimate of the audience for a TV advertisement, and are determined through BARB data. They are in effect index numbers that represent the proportion of the potential viewing audience
Test market The use of a representative small geographical area of the total target market to facilitate a controlled experiment in which one or more proposed marketing actions are trialled. Test marketing assesses the viability of a new product, new market or new marketing communications before embarking on a full launch
TGI See Target Group Index
Through-the-line agency Describes agencies that claim to offer complete marketing communications solutions. Full-service and one-stop shop agencies are associated terms
Through-the-line communications Marketing communications that span both above- and below-the-line activities
Tie-ins Multiple products involved in a single  sales promotion
Time-based branding perspective Recognises that brands are dynamic and to survive they have to respond and change to the needs of the environment
Time-shifted Communications not viewed linearly as no prime time required Delay TV, Sky+, TiVo, DVD recorders facilitate viewing out of schedules
Tint Process of breaking a solid colour into a series of dots or lines. Through this process, tones or tints of a colour are achieved by varying the amount or size of dots or lines for printing: the lower the concentration, the lighter the tint appears
Tipping point Moment in time when paradigm shift occurs or change happens
TiVo Personal video recorder which allows taping of TV programmes
Top-down budgeting System whereby budgets are set by senior management, disaggregated and passed down to lower management
Top-of-mind awareness Consumer’s consideration set must consider our brand to get premier position in the category ‘Have a break, have a Kit Kat’ helps Nestlé Rowntree to ‘own’ the category
Top-of-mind reinforcement Brand recall for need association better than competitors in category
Total set The complete set of alternative choices in a decision
Tracking studies The evaluation of marketing communications at various stages during their use. In this way, effects may be monitored throughout a campaign and modifications to the marketing communications plan introduced if necessary
Trade allowances Incentives provided to trade buyers in the form of extra allowances such as special-purchase terms
Traditional mass media Newspaper, magazines, TV and radio
Traffic (i) Describes the function that ensures that the development and production of agency work is completed to deadline through all the various stages from initial brief, through creative solutions, to final production. It is a crucial part of agency operations
(ii) Can refer to passers-by (as in poster measurement), or to the number of viewers of web pages (also called hits)
Transactional marketing Marketing in which the emphasis is placed on each individual purchase situation in contrast to relationship marketing. The increased focus placed on developing long-term customer relationships in today's marketing is considered to be a major shift in marketing philosophy. See also Relationship marketing
Transactional selling Selling where the emphasis is simply placed on achieving the sale and following the steps proposed to a successful sale
Transformational motivations Motivations based on hedonistic needs. Actual or perceived ability for brand use to change appearance, state or outlook of user Lynx claims to instil sexual attractiveness
Trans-media and media-neutral planning Scheduling of communication messages based on audience requirement not media
Transmission communications Communications which are seen as being SENT through or injected into a communication conduit (medium) TO an audience to evoke a response Inland Revenue Self-Assessment campaigns leading up to 31 January income tax deadlines
Trialling the product Used to alleviate ‘perceived risk’ in the buying decision process and help start brand loyalty Vogue or Elle magazines attaching a complimentary sachet of perfume in a special edition
Trickle-across communications Conversations from group to group. Oral communications or word of mouth as oppose to ‘trickle-down’ communications
Trivial product attributes Attributes created in the marketing communications with no real value for the product Alberto Natural Silk Shampoo includes silk in the product to imply silkier hair is achievable, and using the tagline: ‘We put silk in the shampoo bottle’
TVR See Television rating point
Two-way asymmetrical model Two-way communications negotiating with target audiences, resolving conflict and promoting mutual understanding and respect between the organisation and its audiences
Two-way conversations Symmetrical, evenly distributed communications BETWEEN company and customer New Labour has apparently been ringing dissident voters who email Gordon Brown to complain
Typicality (category positioning) Degree to which a brand is characteristic of its product category; some brands are seen as more typical than others. Some are so typical that they are more or less synonymous with (or seen as the prototype brand for) the product category Kellogg’s and Gillette have the heritage, image and equity in their specific categories
Typicality reference point Brand feature or category characteristic which marks either product or sector Kwik Fit both positions the brand and signifies the category for quick-turn-around auto repairs